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ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY


Orthognathic surgery, is a specialized surgical procedure performed to correct irregularities of the jaw bones and restore proper alignment of the upper and lower jaws
ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY

Orthognathic surgery, also known as corrective jaw surgery, is a specialized surgical procedure performed to correct irregularities of the jaw bones and restore proper alignment of the upper and lower jaws. This type of surgery is often done in collaboration with orthodontic treatment to address issues related to the bite, facial asymmetry, and overall facial harmony. 


Indications for Orthognathic Surgery 

1- Malocclusion (Misalignment of the Bite): 

Orthognathic surgery is commonly recommended for individuals with severe malocclusion, including overbites, underbites, crossbites, and open bites that cannot be effectively corrected with orthodontic treatment alone. 


2- Facial Asymmetry: 

Facial asymmetry resulting from uneven growth of the upper and lower jaws can be corrected through orthognathic surgery to achieve a more balanced and harmonious facial appearance. 


3- Breathing and Sleep Apnea Issues: 

Jaw abnormalities can contribute to breathing difficulties and sleep apnea. Orthognathic surgery may be recommended to improve the airway and alleviate these issues. 


4- Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders: 

Orthognathic surgery may be considered in cases where malocclusion and jaw misalignment contribute to TMJ disorders, causing pain, clicking, or limited jaw movement. 


5- Difficulty Chewing or Speaking: 

Individuals experiencing difficulty with chewing, speaking, or other functional aspects related to jaw misalignment may benefit from orthognathic surgery. 


Orthognathic Surgery Process 

1- Comprehensive Evaluation: 

The process begins with a thorough evaluation by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon and an orthodontist. This evaluation includes imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and facial photographs.

 

2- Orthodontic Preparation: 

Before surgery, patients typically undergo orthodontic treatment to align the teeth. Braces are used to achieve proper dental alignment and coordination. 


3- Treatment Planning: 

The oral and maxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist collaborate to develop a comprehensive treatment plan. This plan outlines the specific surgical procedures needed to correct the jaw abnormalities. 


4- Surgical Procedures: 

Orthognathic surgery is performed in a hospital setting under general anesthesia. The specific surgical techniques depend on the nature of the jaw abnormalities.

Common procedures include:

*LeFort Osteotomy: Repositioning the upper jaw. 

*Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy (BSSO): Repositioning the lower jaw. 

*Genioplasty: Repositioning the chin. 

*The surgeon makes incisions inside the mouth to access the jaw bones, allowing for repositioning and realignment. 


5- Recovery and Follow-Up: 

After surgery, patients undergo a recovery period, during which they may need a soft or liquid diet. Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor healing, and additional orthodontic adjustments may be made.

 

Considerations 

1- Multidisciplinary Collaboration: 

Orthognathic surgery often involves collaboration between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, and sometimes other specialists such as speech therapists or sleep medicine specialists. 


2- Functional and Aesthetic Benefits: 

Orthognathic surgery not only improves jaw function but also enhances facial aesthetics, leading to a more balanced and harmonious appearance. 


3- Patient Education: 

Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery receive comprehensive preoperative and postoperative education to understand the process, expected outcomes, and post-surgical care requirements. 


4- Stability and Long-Term Results: 

Orthognathic surgery aims to achieve stable and long-term results. Following surgery, patients often experience improved facial symmetry, enhanced function, and a more comfortable bite. 

 

Orthognathic surgery is a complex and specialized procedure that can have significant positive impacts on both the function and aesthetics of the jaw and face. The decision to undergo orthognathic surgery is made based on a thorough evaluation of the individual's unique case, and the surgery is typically part of a comprehensive treatment plan aimed at achieving optimal outcomes. 
 

 

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